Ultrasonic occurs in the electronic generator that transforms the mains voltage in high voltage and high frequency (ultrasonic). Tironi generators have ultrasonic output for two types of frequency 20Khz and 30Khz.
Ultrasonic electrical voltage is transmitted through a high frequency shielded cable to an ultrasonic, piezoelectric type, transducer.
The piezoelectric transducer transforms electrical energy into mechanical vibrations at the applied frequency. These vibrations are transmitted to the booster, and this in turn to the horn.
This is the first link in the chain. There are various frequencies and power outputs, the choice of which depends primarily on the application requirements.
Low frequencies are normally used in applications requiring large Horns and / or high power.
High frequencies are typically used in manual bead welding equipment, in special machines where the heads are often very close together and the distances do not allow low frequency heads to be fitted and also on riveting applications or spot welds that require precision and little power output.
The transducer is the device responsible for transforming electrical energy into mechanical energy.
The inducer operation is based on the properties of artificial piezoelectric crystals formed of lead-zirconate-titanium, which upon application of an alternating current, are compressed or expanded periodically.
This type of transducer has, among others, two major advantages: high efficiency 90-95% and reduced sizing.
For full performance, the transducer must be built to respond to a resonance frequency equal to the electrical signal received.
The Booster is responsible, as its name suggests, for maintaining, increasing or decreasing the mechanical amplitude received by the converter, acting in a manner similar to the gearshift of a car.
Its principle of operation is based on the mass ratio between the top and the bottom.
The booster also has the function of anchoring of the head on the machine, without it transmitting the vibration to the structure. For this function two rings and two clamping rings are mounted on the "zero vibration" nodal zone.
The horn is the last link of the ultrasonic system. Its function is to transmit mechanical vibrations generated in the transducer, duly adjusted in amplitude by the booster to the piece to be processed.
Because of the wide variety of applications: welding, riveting, inserting, punching, textile cutting, cutting food, etc., there is a great diversity of Horns shapes and different materials, designed to the particularities of the pieces and applications.
Horns must be designed to the corresponding resonance frequency and must be made of suitable materials (titanium, aluminium, steel).